418 MINORCA (Balearic Islands off Spain's eastern coast)
Severus, the bishop of Minorca, claimed to have forced 540 Jews to accept Christianity upon conquering the Island. This is the first we know of Jews on this Island as well as the first case of Jews being forced to convert or face expulsion. Although in general forced conversions (as laid down by Pope Gregory I) were officially frowned upon, they were considered valid - and backsliding was usually considered heresy. Harsher "no choice" forced conversions began in the 9th century.
720 SERENE (Babylon)
A Syrian Jew promised to recapture the Holy Land. He also urged that the Talmud be abolished. Caliph Yezid, Omar's successor, arrested this "Messiah" and handed him over to the Jews in Pumbedita for punishment. Natronai ben Nehemia (Gaon) urged the Jewish community to readmit their brethren into the fold. They eventually did so, though they were initially reluctant.
932 BYZANTINE EMPIRE
Emperor Romanus Lecapenus (920-944), co-ruler with Constantine VII, commanded that the Jews in the realm be forcibly baptized. Though it resulted in a mass emigration, his decree was never fully realized. This may have been due to the influence of Hasdai ibn Saprut, who used his position to persuade Constantine. Or, as others relate, it may be due to pressure from the king of Khazaria, who threatened to attack if the decree was not called off.
1146 SECOND CRUSADE (Germany)
Declared by Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany. Radolph the Monk incited massacres along the Rhine, including demolishing the town of Wurzberg. (Rationale - it didn't make sense to go all the way to the Holy Land to kill the infidel while leaving them safe and snug at home. Link This also insured that they had the virtue of fighting an "infidel" without having to face the expense and danger of a long journey, or an armed enemy who could fight back.) An additional factor was the new group of Christian merchants eager to rid themselves of Jewish competition. Since they were forbidden to own land, Jews were forced into money lending - formerly a Church business. The effects of this were felt for centuries and became part of anti-Semitic tradition. Link
Following persecutions in the wake of the Black Plague, many Jews fled south to Greece, becoming absorbed into the local Sephardic population. The term "Sephardic Jews" originally refered to those Jews who lived in the Iberian peninsula and followed certain customs. After the expulsion of 1492 the Sephardic community spread throughout the Levant, to Turkey , Greece, and North Africa. Ladino (which is the equivalent of Yiddish) was spoken by some but, was not as widespread as the former among its population.
1510 ABRAHAM BEN ELIEZER HALEVI (Spain-Jerusalem)
An apocalyptic Kabbalist (c. 1460-1532) wrote letters proclaiming the year 1524 as the beginning of the arrival of the Messiah. Halevi, who was originally from Spain, spent many years wandering after the expulsion until he settled in Jerusalem in 1514. There Halevi, who was widely respected for his scholarly knowledge, urged people to repent and make themselves ready for the redemption. Among his many treatises on Kabbalah are Mashreh Kitrin (Untyer of Knots) Maamar Perek Chelek on talmudic sources for redemption and a commentary on Nevuat Hayeled (A Child's Prophesy). Halevi's letters unfortunately paved the way for the acceptance of messianic pretenders such as Molcho and Shabbetai Zevi.
1533 April 5, DUARTE DE PAZ (Portugal)
An emissary of the New Christians of Portugal succeeded in gaining from Pope Clement VII a postponement of the establishing of the Inquisitions against New Christians in Portugal. The pope issued the , Bulla de Perdao, which was essentially a pardon for all past offenses. Unfortunately, the pope died a few years later, and the Inquisition was officially established (1536).
1749 (7 Sivan 5509) COUNT VALENTINE POTOCKI (Lithuania)
Was burned at the stake in Vilna. The Count, along with his friend Zeremba, had met an old Jew in a tavern and promised to convert if he could convince them of the pre-eminence of Judaism. Potocki converted and eventually settled in Vilna. Zeremba, hearing that his friend converted, did likewise and moved to Eretz Israel. Potocki's presence in Vilna became known and he was put on trial for heresy. He refused to recant and was burned at the stake. His ashes were collected and buried in Vilna. On his tomb is written "Abraham Ger Zedek" (a righteous proselyte). The Jews of Vilna would visit his grave and say Kaddish.
1905 LEO BAECK
Published Essence of Judaism. In it Baeck, stressed the ethical and spiritual aspects of Judaism. (see 1873)
1907 ERETZ ISRAEL
Ten years after the first Zionist Congress there were approximately 80,000 Jewish inhabitants in Eretz Israel: 45,000 in Jerusalem, 8000 in Jaffa, 8000 in Safed, 2000 in Haifa, 2000 in Tiberias, and 1000 in Hebron. In addition, there were 14,000 people living in over 30 villages and underdeveloped land.
1910 KIEV (Ukraine)
Twelve hundred Jewish families were expelled.
1919 April 5, PINSK (Poland)
35 well-known Jews were executed. They were taken from a legitimate business meeting of the Jewish Cooperative and accused of being Jewish Bolshevists. Others also arrested were told to dig their own graves and then released.
1920 April 4 - 5, JERUSALEM (Eretz Israel)
Anti-Jewish riots. Five Jews were killed and two hundred and eleven wounded. Vladimir Jabotinsky and others were arrested for organizing a self-defense league.
1940: British Prime Minister, Neville Chamberlain, tells the British people that Hitler has 'missed the bus', meaning that a German invasion of the west is now unlikely to succeed.
1940: RAF attacks ship in Wilhelmshaven.
1940: Norway and Sweden are both informed of the allied intention to mine Norwegian waters.
1941: German commandos secure docks along the Danube River in preparation for Germany's invasion of the Balkans.
1941: Allied forces enter Addis Ababa, the capital of Abyssinia, taking 8,000 Italians prisoner.
1942: Fuhrer Directive 41 rolls off the mimeograph machines in Rastenberg and the Wehrmacht has its marching orders for 1942. Leningrad is to finally be captured, but that's a secondary objective. The big plan is in the South, which involves 2nd Army and 4th Panzer Army breaking through to Voronezh on the Don. 6th Army will break out South of Kharkov and combine with the 4th Panzer Army to surround the enemy. After that, the 4th Panzer Army and 6th Army will drive East under the command of Army Group B and surround Stalingrad from the North, while Army Group A's 17th Army and 1st Panzer Army will do so from the South. Once Stalingrad is taken, the 6th Army will hold the flank defense line while Army Group A drives South into the Caucasus to seize the oilfields and become the northern punch of a grand pincer movement (the southern half being Rommel) to seize Suez, the Nile Delta, the Middle-East and its oilfields.
1942: 180 Japanese planes from five aircraft carriers attack the Royal Navy's base at Colombo in Ceylon. These came from Admiral Nagumo's 1st Air Fleet under Admiral Kondo's Southern Force which was tasked with destroying the Royal Navy's Fleet in the Indian Ocean. However, the British received prior warning and sailed the bulk of their fleet to the Maldives, although the armed merchant cruiser Hector and destroyer Tenedos were sunk. Fifty-three Japanese carrier-aircraft did however locate and sink the Royal Navy's heavy cruisers Dorsetshire and Cornwall, to the south east of Ceylon, in just 22 minutes. Link
1943: The British 8th Army attacks the next blocking position of the retreating Axis forces at Wadi Akarit.
1943. április 5. Bejelentve az Antverpen külvárosai ellen végrehajtott angol-amerikai terrorbombázásokat, az angol rádió megállapítja, hogy a támadás "kiváló eredménnyel járt". Mintegy háromszáz tíz évesnél fiatalabb gyermek összezúzott holtteste került elő az iskolák és bölcsődék romjai alól.
Fisher Body Ad - April 1944
1944: The RAF and USAAF conduct the first of 24 round-the-clock raids on the Ploesti oil refineries in Romania.
1944: A Jewish inmate, Siegfried Lederer, escapes from Auschwitz-Birkenau and makes it safely to Czechoslovakia. He then warns the Elders of the Council at Theresienstadt about Auschwitz.
1944 April 5, BUDAPEST JEWISH LEADERS (Hungary)
Dr. Rudolf Kastzner and Joel Brand met with Dieter Wisliceny and proposed to ransom Hungarian Jews in what became known as Blut fuer Ware ("Blood for Goods"). Eichmann, with Himmler's approval, allowed Brand to go to Istanbul in order to broker the deal with the Allies. It is theorized that Himmler was trying to prepare for the inevitable Allied victory by "showing" that he was really in favor of Jewish emigration rather than annihilation.
1944. április 5. A sárga csillag kötelező viseléséről szóló rendelet életbe lép. (azt sajnos nem tudom mikor vonták vissza, de ha nem tettek ilyent, akkor ma is élő rendelet)
Fisher Body Ad - April 1945
1945: During a raid on Kiel by the U.S. 8th Air Force, severe damage is caused to the cruisers Hipper and Emden.
1945: Eighteen U.S. divisions begin the clearance of Ruhr Pocket. The French First Army captures Karlsruhe on the upper Rhine.
1945: The 3rd Ukrainian Front reaches the railway North West of Vienna, cutting rail link with Linz.
1945: A U.S. military government is established on Okinawa.
1957. április 5. ,,Ezeket az ellenforradalmárokat körmenetben kell bíróság elé állítani, halálra ítélni és kivégezni", jelenti ki Kádár János az MSZMP Központi Bizottsága ülésén. (Vö. 1957. február 2.)
2001. április 5. Az Európai Parlament határozatban bírálja az apácák és gyermekek ellen egyházi személyek által elkövetett szexuális visszaélésekkel kapcsolatos egyházi magatartást, mivel az állami igazságszolgáltatással szembeni föggetlenségére hivatkozó egyház sok helyen nem tette lehetővé az ilyen esetek független kivizsgálását, azaz közvetve az állami törvények és igazságszolgáltatás fölé helyezte magát. A határozat következtében elhalasztották II. János Pál tervezett parlamenti látogatását. (Vö. 1998. október 18.; 2001. november 28.; 2002. február 20.; 2002. március 15.; 2004. március 12.)
*Cleo Moore was born October 31, 1928 in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Her parents were deeply involved in Democratic politics. Politics, in Louisiana, was an all consuming passion with a lot of families in the 20's and 30's. Cleo began her trek to stardom when she participated in school plays in high school. When she was just 15 years old, Cleo wed Palmer Long, son of the late Huey "Kingfish" Long in 1944.
Palmer's father had been one of the movers and shakers in Louisiana politics for years, first serving as governor and then the U.S. Senate. He was assassinated in 1935 in the state capitol building. (Cleo, herself, was to run for Governor of Louisiana in 1956). The marriage was doomed to fail having lasted a mere six weeks. After Cleo finished high school, she moved with her family to California where her father was anticipating the end of World War II and the building boom that was expected to follow. Once in sunny California, it didn't take long to get "discovered". She was spotted by an RKO executive and was convinced to take a screen test. She passed. Her first film was in a rather non-descript film called "Congo Bill" in 1948.
After that fiasco, Cleo went back to work at her family's building business and did some modeling. Two years later, in 1950, the shapely blonde appeared in a Western entitled, "Rio Grande Patrol". She received fifth billing in the movie that got no where. That year proved to busy for Cleo as she appeared in five other films. In "Bright Leaf", a film about the tobacco industry, was a well-received one even though she had only a small part. "Gambling House" was, somewhat, of a personal breakthrough. Instead of having, basically, unknowns as her co-stars, Cleo had Victor Mature and William Bendix. Then it was back to another substandard flick called "This Side of the Law". Hard as it was to break into films that really grabbed to public's attention, Cleo seemed to be destined to stay in B movie roles for the balance of her career.
She did appear in a good film called "On Dangerous Ground" in 1951 with Ida Lupino and Robert Ryan, but had only a minor part. For an actress who had a wonderful talent, she seemed to be picked because of how her physical attributes played on the screen. Never mind the role. That seemed secondary to the moguls of the studios. She was very beautiful, but Cleo wanted them to look past that and see the talent she possessed. In 1954, Cleo appeared in two more duds, "The Other Woman" and "Bait". The following year she made two more films, "Hold Back Tomorrow" which was termed strange and "Women's Prison". Although a second class movie, it fared well at the box-office because of the subject matter and Cleo.
Other than that, it didn't have a lot going for it. In 1957, Cleo starred in her final film, along with her sister, Mari Lea, called "Hit and Run". She had star billing, but it was another bomb. Cleo, then, left films forever. She married a real estate tycoon in 1961 and settled down to a life of being a socialite and domesticity. Cleo had a daughter born in 1963. Less than a week before her 45th birthday, Cleo died of a heart attack on October 25, 1973 in Inglewood, California. To her legions of fans, she remains their favorite sex symbol of the 1950's and others languish knowing that her talent could have sent her to loftier heights instead of being wasted in minor roles in substandard B pictures.
Measurements: 38-24-36 (in 1954), (Source: Celebrity Sleuth magazine)